Due to a number of problems the traditional scientific journal has become an obstacle for e±cient scientific communication. Several initiatives have been started to realise other ways of scientific publishing, using modern information technology. In several disciplines, however, a relatively large number of scientists still are reluctant to make use of completely new ways of publishing. Two Dutch universities (Utrecht and Delft) and two German universities (Oldenburg and Hamburg) have taken the initiative to set up an infrastructure for academic e-publishing in Europe and to establish a network of content providers making use of this infrastructure. This project, called FIGARO, is a European extension of the Dutch Roquade project together with the German GAP project and is financially supported by the European Commission. The FIGARO project has a number of remarkable aspects. Firstly, it offers a variety of possibilities, which together constitute an expeditious way for gradually changing the publication behaviour of scientists. It aims at creating an infrastructure that conglomerates the swiftness of publication which hitherto could only be realised by grey publishing, with quality judgement without the serious delay of the traditional review procedures. Figaro offers a wide number of facilities to a broad audience, based on a common organisational and technical infrastructure. Secondly, it creates a business model, which distinguishes between the back o±ce (the infrastructure) at one side and a network of front offices (content providers and intermediates for content providers) at the other side. This business model not only guarantees continuous feed back from the users. It also allows content providers to stick to their own brand and brand name, instead of urging them to conform to a publisher’s brand. In short, FIGARO is not a publisher in the traditional sense, but it enables scientists and organisations of scientists to become publishers themselves.