PLoS ONE, a peer-reviewed Open Access academic journal published by the Public Library of Science, was founded in 2006 with the intent of reevaluating many of the aspects of the scholarly journal. As a result, PLoS ONE has taken elements of the traditional publishing model for scholarly journals and separated them into those functions that are most effectively carried out before publication (for example, peer review in order to evaluate whether the article deserves to join the scientific literature) and those that can most effectively be carried out after publication (for example, how impactful the article was once it joined the literature). With this basic premise in place, and using the online tools that are now available, the journal has grown to the extent that in 2009 it will become one of the largest journals in the world (by publication volume). This article overviews the development of the journal to date-how it differs from most other journals and how it engages with its core audiences. In March 2009, the journal (along with other PLoS titles) began a program to place 'article-level metrics' on each publication, and this article outlines how this has been achieved, as well as plans for further development. In conclusion, this article looks forward to the future developments of this transformational journal.